Rohm and Haas ups biocides

Europa Chemie: August 1999.

Rohm and Haas has completed a 40% capacity expansion of its biocides production unit at Bayport, US. The company said that this is in response to anticipated increased demand for new and existing isothiazolone formulations. Rohm and Haas produces a range of biocidal products at the plant, including Kathon biocides, Sea-Nine 211 marine antifouling agents, Klarix 4000 microbiocides for water treatment applications and Rozone biocide for the coatings market. The company said it is also investing in biocides production at its Jarrow plant in the UK.

US demand for antimicrobial chemicals to grow

Chemical Online: September 1999

US demand for speciality disinfectant and antimicrobial chemicals is projected to expand 3.6% annually to 277 million pounds, valued at USD 620 million, in the year 2003. Paints and coatings will remain the largest market for antimicrobial additives, supported by the trend toward water-based and low-solvent coating formulations which require greater antimicrobial protection. Products that reduce the risk of illnesses from food, fight antibiotic-resistant organisms and are compatible with other cleaning formulations will show the fastest growth.

FDA approval for Albright & Wilson paper biocide

Chemical week: September 1999

Albright & Wilson have received FDA approval to use its tetrakishhydroxymethyl phosphonium sulphate in food contact paper applications.  The biocide is used to prevent the formation of slime in paper machines. It is already approved for use in industrial water treatment, pulp and paper applications and oil field recovery.

China: setting up for a biocides boom?

Press Release: September 1999.

Chinese demand for speciality biocides is about 54,000 tonnes/y, worth $100 M.  Of this volume, food preservation accounts for 15.7%, sanitation and disinfection for 15.7%, feed preservation 11.8%, industrial wastewater treatment 9.7% and industrial preservatives 31.1%. Overall there is overcapacity and intense competition, and prices have fallen.  Food preservation biocides will continue to see double-digit growth.  There is also rapid growth in the sanitation and disinfection market.  Demand for feed preservatives has been rising at over 10%/y due to rising feed output.  However, biocide growth is expected to slow as producers add less preservatives to feeds.  Use of biocides in industrial wastewater treatment has also grown at 10%/y for the last 4-5 years, and strong growth is expected to continue due to the advent of regulations on effluent discharges. Demand for industrial preservatives is growing moderately.  Overall, Chinese biocides demand will grow at 8%/y to reach 81,000 tonnes or $150 M in 2003.

Quaternary surface active agents; a review.

Speciality Chemicals: September 1999.

Authors: Dr.Vasanti G. Yadav and J.R.Vyas.

The use of quaternary surface-active ammonium compounds (QUATS) is steadily increasing as the full scope of their applications is being realised. QUATS are odourless, highly stable, and non-toxic at recommended concentrations.  Germicides such as mercurials, unstable chlorine and halogenated compounds are thus being phased out in favour of QUATS due to their carcinogenic and corrosive properties.

Speciality disinfectant and anti-microbial chemicals demand (US$ million).





%Ann.Growth 01/96

Disinfectant Chemicals demand.





Paints and coatings.




















Institutional Commmercial and Retail.
















QUATS such as alkylbenzyldimethyl ammonium chloride, cetyl pyridinium chloride and cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride address the needs of the growing market. QUATS are odourless, colourless, and tasteless; they have germicidal action due to their surface active and wetting properties; they are non staining, stable, non corrosive, active at high temperatures and economical due to the reusability of the aqueous solution.  Due to the adsorptive properties of QUATS, treated surfaces retain activity in a residual layer after treatment.  The action of QUATS on bacteria may be due to the adsorption of the QUATS on the bacterial surface enabling the anti-protein and enzyme action.  It should be noted that bacterial recovery from inhibition is much slower with QUATS than other disinfectants.  QUATS are active against gram positive more so than gram negative organisms. However anionic detergents via precipitation could inactivate QUATS.  Also Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions can reduce QUAT’s germicidal activity. In hospitals QUATS are used for all areas of disinfection including pre-op on skin and surgical instruments, bed linen and floor, wall and equipment surfaces. In all branches of the food industry QUATS are used for equipment sterilisation, and the prevention of putrification. Process water in the paper, cooling secondary oil recovery and swimming pool sectors are regularly treated with QUATS.  Microbial slime build up is prevented and in the case of swimming polls as little as 2-4ppm of alkylbenzyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride is required for sterilisation.  In the textile industry QUATS are used in diaper disinfection, insect proofing wool fabric and cottons, and in laundry washing with non-ionic detergents.  The addition of 0.25–2% alkylbenzyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride to textile printing gums and sizing mixtures prevents microbial decay. QUATS also fulfil the main requirements of a preservative in that they have fungistatic action and do not affect the physical properties of the material.  Photographic negatives cosmetic emulsions, paints embalmed specimens, wood, paper and board and leather can all be preserved through the use of QUATS.  Spraying benzalkonium chloride on leather at vital stages in its treatment enhance the longevity and quality of the material.  The twofold problem of bacterial attack in bulk storage and later fungal attack of paints and latex paint films can also be addressed by QUATS like benzalkonium chloride.