Almost every cooling system presents a potential environment for the uninhibited growth of microorganisms. These microorganisms can enter in makeup water or by being scrubbed from air passing through the cooling water. Algal slimes, fungal and bacterial slimes reduce the efficiency of the cooling system, through effects such as corrosion and pitting of equipment. Cellullytic fungi can also degrade the wood of cooling towers. Anti-microbials are used in both open and closed cooling systems to prevent the proliferation of microorganisms. Cooling water anti-microbials are generally classified according to chemical activity into either oxidizers or non-oxidizers. The market for oxidizing anti-microbials is dominated by chlorinated isocyanurates, chlorate and hypochlorite salts, chlorinated hydantoins and brominated compounds such as sodium bromide and 1-bromo-3-chloro-5-dimethyl hydantoin (BCDMH). The leading non-oxidizing anti-microbials include isothiazolines, dithiocarbamates e.g. disodium ethylenebis (dithiocarbamate) (NABAM), glutaraldehyde and QUATS such as didecyl diethyl ammonium chloride.
North American consumption of anti-microbials at active manufacturer level by the cooling water industry was estimated at $70 million in 1998. Oxidizing anti-microbials accounted for 40% of the total value consumption. Rohm & Haas, Lonza, Buckman, Stepan and Union Carbide are leading players in the non-oxidizing biocide market. Great Lakes dominate the oxidizing anti-microbials market. Lonza, Albermarle and Ameribrom also supply to this market. Sales of anti-microbials through water management service companies are the most popular distribution route. Most of the leading service companies such as Hercules Betz Dearborn, Nalco, Calgon and Buckman incorporate both basic biocide manufacture and service into their business.
End users require their anti-microbials to be cost effective, non-accumulative, odourless, compatible with other water treatment chemicals, and safe. Recently the EPA and FIFRA have tended to require more formulation specific data on anti-microbials. Increased registration fees are also increasing costs for biocide manufacturers. Environmental pressures may also affect sales of chlorine based products. Overall the future for anti-microbials in the cooling water industry looks good with expected annual growth due to changes in water treatment technology and increased environmental regulations leading to a market value of $78 million at manufacture level by 2002. For further information about this or any other reports contact Biocide Information Services.
This category covers biocide applications in toiletries; colour cosmetics and skin care products. The selection and application of the correct anti-microbials is critical in cosmetics, given the variety of additives used in the formulation and the later dermal exposure. There is a huge range of microorganisms that end users can be exposed to including yeasts such as Candida spp., moulds such as Alternaria and Aspergillus spp. and bacteria such as Aerobacter spp. and Bacillus spp. Anti-microbials in cosmetics can be classified into three main categories, preservatives, bacteriostats and anti-dandruff agents. The ideal biocide for personal care applications has few physical or chemical incompatibilities, is effective over a wide temperature and pH range and provides lasting effective anti microbial action. Ideally the biocide should also be odourless, non-toxic, and non-irritating and have a good toxicity profile. Leading preservatives include diazolidnyl urea, parabens, quaternum 15 and DMDM hydantoin. Triclosan and triclocarbon dominate the bacteriostat market, these are used in both leave on and rinse off products although at differing levels. Anti dandruff agents require both bacteriostatic and fungistatic activity, zinc pyrithones with a 75% market share dominate this market, selenium sulphide and coal tar products are also used.
North American consumption of anti-microbials in the personal care industry stood at $165.3m at active manufacturer level in 1998. Preservative sales accounted for 46% of this with anti dandruff agents occupying less than 18% of this market. The leading suppliers of anti-microbials to this industry include Ciba, the sole producer of triclosan, ISP, Nipa, Rohm & Haas, Angus, Bayer andarch Chemicals. An estimated 80% of all anti-microbials are sold directly by suppliers to end users, this allows suppliers to provide comprehensive technical advice and support to end-users.
The leading personal care manufacturers and biocide end users in North America include Proctor & Gamble, Unilever, Cosmaair, Estee Lauder and Colgate Palmolive. To these end users biocide performance and mildness are critical issues. Owing to the very successful self-policing of the industry by the Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association, neither EPA or FDA registration or pre use approval is required for anti-microbials in the North American personal care industry.
In the future increased emphasis on natural products and the consumers increased fear of "germs" will fuel growth for anti-microbials in the personal care market. Due to the liability costs associated with cross contamination of personal care products, this market is likely to remain less price sensitive than others. Entry into the market in the absence of a clearly defined registration process remains complicated. Currently the research trends are directed towards blending existing anti-microbials in new ways. The future for anti-microbials in the North American personal care market is good, average annual growth rates of 3% will lead to a market size of $245m in 2002.
For further information about this or any other reports contact Biocide Information Services.
Disinfectants and sanitisers are part of a much larger classification of industrial and institutional cleaning products. These cleaners are formulated and generally based on alkalis, surfactants, phosphates, anti-microbials and other basic chemicals. The four major groups of anti-microbials used in disinfectants and sanitisers are QUATS, phenolics, chloroisocyanurates and iodophors. Alkyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) is the leading QUAT while ortho -phenylphenol (OPP) and ortho-benzyo-paraphenol (OBPP) are the leading phenolics. The widely applicable sodium dichloroisocyanurate and trichloroisocyanuric acid are the most popular chloroisocyanurates.
Consumption of anti-microbials by the North American disinfectant industry was estimated at $130m in 1998. 38% of this market was represented by QUATS with phenolics trailing with a share of 18%. These figures do not include the commodity anti-microbials such as calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite. A few large manufacturers control the supply of anti-microbials to the disinfectant industry. These companies include Lonza, Stepan, Dow, Bayer, Occidental, Nipa and West Agro. Driven by technical support and quality issues most end users purchase anti-microbials directly from the manufacturers. Less than 20% of all biocide sales are via distributors.
The end user market can be divided into three sections, janitorial and housekeeping, food processing and food service. Each sector requires differing levels of germ control, however all demand safety, efficiency and a good toxicological profile of the anti-microbials they use. Leading biocide end users include Johnson&Johnson, Unilever, Clorox, Squibb and Ecolab.
Recently the EPA and FIFRA have tended to require more formulation specific data on anti-microbials. Involvement of the FDA and OSHA has also led to tightened regulations and a reduction in the number of permitted actives. Increased awareness of blood borne disease has led to increased sales of phenolics. In the future increased demand and regulatory costs for anti-microbials will drive the shape of the market. The net result will be larger sales but fewersuppliers. Consolidation of the industry will also continue. As more institutions develop disinfection policies, there should be increased sales for disinfectants and sanitisers leading to an overall market size of $156m in 2002.
For further information about this or any other reports contact Biocide Information Services.
Anti-microbials have two major applications in hospitals. Used in surgical scrubs anti-microbials help to reduce epidermal microbial populations to almost undetectable levels. Used as sterilants anti-microbials must destroy all microbes present, the FDA differentiates these sterilants from disinfectants. High performance and a rapid kill action are very important for anti-microbials in hospitals, additionally the anti-microbials used on or near skin must be non- irritant and safe. The market for anti-microbials for the hospital antiseptics and sterilants industry was valued at $24.5 million in 1998. The leading anti-microbials in this field include PVP-iodine and chlorhexidine gluconate. QUATS, p-chloro-m-xylenol (PCMX) and ammonium compounds are also used. Sterilants such as peracetic acid and glutaraldehyde are popular. As the major supplier of pvp-iodine, West Agro dominate the supply of anti-microbials to this market. BASF, Avecia, Union Carbide and Burlington are also major players in the supply of anti-microbials. Anti-microbials in this market are generally sold directly to formulators; suppliers work with formulators to develop data requirements for FFDCA regulations.
Leading consumers of anti-microbials for the hospital antiseptics and disinfectant industry include Purdue-Frederick, Zeneca, Smithkline Beecham, Squibb and Huntington Laboratories. In-line with general trends in the industry formulators and end users are undergoing increasing consolidation. Increasing pressure form the FDA, FIFRA and the EPA have increased costs for biocide manufacturers and suppliers. Performance data including information on germicidal, tuberculocidal and virucidal activity is now required. To be successful in this market a new product would need to have rapid, broad-spectrum action and reduced abrasiveness and colour. A moderate half-life would also be desirable in any new biocide. Coupled with the relatively small size of the market, these requirements may limit the entry of new products into the market.Overall however increased rigour in contamination control in hospitals will fuel further growth in this mature market. The market is expected to reach a value of $27 million at active manufacture level by 2002. For further information about this or any other reports contact Biocide Information Services.